Presentation on theme: "Cause and Effect Essay."— Presentation transcript:
1 Cause and Effect Essay
2 Cause and Effect Essays
A cause-effect essay serves one of two purposes1. It shows the effects of a thing or event2. It explains the causes of a thing or eventCause effect essays deal with the action/result relationship. They explain why things happen (causes) and what happens as a result (effects).
3 Cause and Effect Essays: Basic Structure
There are two types of Cause and Effect Essays.A cause with multiple effectsEx) Effects of watching too much TVThe cause is watching too much TV – explain the effectsAn effect with multiple causes.Ex) Causes of air pollution (multiple factors leading to air pollution)Air pollution is the effectEach of the Causes or Effects listed in the thesis statement will correspond to a paragraph in the body of the essay.
4 Multiple causes-->effect
Air pollutionExhaust gases from carsUncontrolled factory gasesBurning of low-quality coal for heating
5 Multiple causes-->effect
Topic: Causes of air pollution(Air pollution is the effect)IntroThesis Statement: Air pollution is caused by the following factors: exhaust gases from cars, uncontrolled factory releases, and burning of low-quality coal for heating.BodyExhaust gases from cars. (Explain how this causes air pollution)Uncontrolled factory releases. (Explain how this causes air pollution)Burning of low-quality coal. (Explain how this causes air pollution)Conclusion
6 Cause-->Multiple effects
Watching too much TVEating disordersCommunication problemsObesity
7 Cause-->Multiple effects
Topic : Effects on society of watching too much TVIntroThesis: Watching too much TV is one of the major sociological issues of this century, which has many effects on the physiology and psychology of people.BodyEating disorders (Explain how watching too much tv causes eating disorders)Communication problemsObesityConclusion
8 Getting Started: Brainstorming
What is the very first step in the writing process?BrainstormingTake a couple minutes to come up with as many cause and effect topics as possible.Fall 2008
9 Sample topics The positive effects of quitting a harmful habit
The effects of noise pollutionCauses of teenage depressionWhy so few students read newspapersThe effect of a parent, teacher, or friend on a child’s lifeThe effects of moving to a new town or cityWhy sales of DVDs are decliningThe effects of cramming for an examWhy growing numbers of people shop onlineThe effects of peer pressureThe effects of the steady increase in the cost of going to collegeWhy some students cheatThe effects of growing up with a personal computerWhy students drop out of high school or collegeWhy so many people eat junk foodThe effects of poverty on an individualWhy many children run away from homeWhy more and more students are taking online classesThe long-term effects of unemployment on a personThe effects of racial, sexual, or religious discriminationThe influence of a book or a movie on a person’s lifeWhy people exerciseThe effects of music downloading on the music industryWhy people have petsThe effects of computers on our everyday livesThe environmental effects of bottled waterThe effects of pressures on students to get good gradesThe effects of a coach or teammate on a student’s lifeThe effects of not keeping a personal budgetThe causes of noise pollution
10 Choosing a topic…Once you have done some brainstorming, take a look at 1 or 2 of the topics you like most.Remember, try not to choose topics that are too broad or too narrow.Too broad: The Causes of PovertyBetter: The Causes of Poverty in the Dominican RepublicToo narrow: The effects of taking English 322Better: The effects of becoming a good writerBetter: The effects of learning a foreign languageIn partners, discuss the topics you have selected and come up with a list of ALL the possible causes or effects for your topics.
11 Narrowing down your topic
Narrowing down your topic. Now that you have a list, narrow down or group your causes or effects into 3 main categories.Effects of Air pollution in Mexico CityNecessity to stay indoorsMore sitting in front of the tvDestruction of wildlifeNegative world attentionDecrease in tourismAllergiesEmphysemaHeadachesPoor visibiltyShorter life spanRunny eyes and noseLower quality of lifeEffects of Air pollution in Mexico CityHealth problemsRunny eyes and noseShorter life spanHeadaches and emphysemaallergiesLifestyle changesMore sitting in front of tvNecessity to stay indoorsLower quality of lifeEconomic issuesNegative world attentionDecrease in tourism
12 Create a Thesis Statement
Definition of your issue followed by its causes or effects.Ex: A recession, which is a nationwide lull in business activity, would be detrimental to American society in the following ways: it would A, it would B and it would C.Fall 2008
13 Thesis Statement Examples
Principal reasons for worker dissatisfaction in the field of customer service are low wages, hostile environment conditions, and boredom.The beneficial effects of annual active family vacations include reduced stress, increased fitness, and improved family relationships.
14 Support your Thesis and Topic Sentences with Details
Research your topic.Use specific details, facts, and statistics to support your causes and effects and to create a strong argument.Be sure to properly cite all of your information using APA citation.
15 Avoid generalizations
Generalization: The reason why Americans are overweight is that they love fast food.Not ALL Americans are overweight and not ALL Americans love fast foods.Better: One of the main reasons behind the obesity epidemic in the United States is the prevalence of Fast Food in the American diet. According to a survey by the Food and Drug Administration, 90 percent of Americans report eating Fast Food at least once a week.
16 Use the 3rd Person Avoid using I or you
Incorrect: I believe that the death penalty is wrong because it is a form of murder.The removal of the “I believe that” makes the sentence more forceful. The purpose of a cause and effect paper is to be as convincing as possible and to convince readers to accept the cause and effect as plausible.Correct: The death penalty is wrong because it is a form of murder.Incorrect: You can’t give the government the power to determine who lives or dies.Who is “You?” This pronoun is not referring to anybody in particular, and therefore, the sentence sounds confusing.Correct: The government should not have the power to determine who lives or dies.Fall 2008
17 Avoid Negative Statements and Bias
Avoid biased statements or make negative statements to the readerToo Negative: The American public is too blind to see that the death penalty is wrong. Voter ignorance is one contributing factor that allows policies like the death penalty to come into law.Better: More death penalty education is needed to provide the voting public with the information they need to make informed decisions.Fall 2008
18 Transition words As a result, As a consequence, Consequently, So,
SIGNAL WORDSTransition wordsAs a result,As a consequence,Consequently,So,SinceAs,BecauseDue toIf… thenLeads toThereforeThusOne reason why ...One of the most important reasons why ...The main reasons why ...There are other reasons, too, ...CauseEffectForBecauseBecause ofSinceAsTo Result fromTo be the result ofDue toThe effect ofThe consequence ofAs a result ofAs a consequence ofAs a resultAs a consequenceThereforeThusConsequentlyHenceSoThe result inTo causeTo have an effect onTo AffectThe cause ofThe reason for
19 Important Questions to Ask
Have I assumed only one cause when many causes may be appropriate?Have I incorrectly assumed a causal relationship between two events that immediately follow each other?Did I distinguish between long-term and short-term causes and effects. A short-term cause or effect is a single, immediately identifiable event; a long-term cause or effect may be less easy to pinpoint but in the long run more important?Did I distinguish between primary (most important) and secondary (ancillary) effects?The Cause and Effect Essay. Mount Hebron High School. 27 May 2008 <http://www.howard.k12.md.us/mth/english_dept/adv-comp/eng_effect.html>.Fall 2008
Нельзя, чтобы Хейл что-то заподозрил. ГЛАВА 43 В свои сорок пять Чед Бринкерхофф отличался тем, что носил тщательно отутюженные костюмы, был всегда аккуратно причесан и прекрасно информирован. На легком летнем костюме, как и на загорелой коже, не было ни морщинки. Его густые волосы имели натуральный песочный оттенок, а глаза отливали яркой голубизной, которая только усиливалась слегка тонированными контактными линзами.