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This article is about the Military College of South Carolina. For the Military Academy of South Carolina, see Camden Military Academy. For other uses, see The Citadel (disambiguation).

MottoDuty, Honor, Respect
TypeSenior Military College
Established1842

Academic affiliations

AASCU
Endowment$245 million (2016)[1]
PresidentLtGen John W. Rosa USAF, ret.
ProvostBG Connie L. Book SCM
CommandantCAPT Eugene F. Paluso USN, ret.

Academic staff

225
Students3,527[2]
Undergraduates2,323 cadets and 375 non-cadets
Postgraduates829
LocationCharleston, South Carolina, U.S.
32°47′50″N79°57′40″W / 32.79722°N 79.96111°W / 32.79722; -79.96111Coordinates: 32°47′50″N79°57′40″W / 32.79722°N 79.96111°W / 32.79722; -79.96111
CampusUrban, 300 acres (121 ha)
ColorsCitadel Blue and White[3]
         
NicknameBulldogs

Sporting affiliations

NCAA Division I – SoCon
MascotSpike
Live Mascots: General 2 & Boo X
Websitewww.citadel.edu

The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina, commonly referred to simply as The Citadel, is a state-supported, comprehensive college located in Charleston, South Carolina, United States. Established in 1842, it is one of six United States senior military colleges. It has 18 academic departments divided into five schools offering 22 majors and 38 minors. The military program consists of cadets pursuing bachelor's degrees who live on campus, while civilian degrees are offered through 8 undergraduate and 24 graduate programs.[4][5]

College overview[edit]

The South Carolina Corps of Cadets numbers 2,300 and (along with Texas A&M) is one of the largest uniformed bodies in the U.S., while approximately 1,200 civilian students are enrolled in the evening Citadel Graduate College pursuing undergraduate and graduate degrees. Women comprise 8% of the Corps and 21% of the overall enrollment while minorities comprise 15% in the Corps and 23% of the total enrollment. Approximately half of The Citadel's cadet enrollment is from the state of South Carolina; cadets come from 45 states and 15 foreign countries.[6][7] South Carolina residents receive a discount in tuition, as is common at state-sponsored schools. The Citadel receives 8% of its operating budget from the state.[8] In 2017, the school's ROTC program commissioned 138 officers.[9]

The Corps of Cadets combines academics, physical challenges and military discipline; all members are required to participate in ROTC. The academic program is divided into five schools – Engineering, Science and Mathematics, Humanities and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Education; Bachelor's degrees are offered in 21 major programs of study and 38 minors. The Citadel Graduate College offers 25 master's degrees, 21 graduate certificates and 2 educational specialist courses; a 2+2 evening program also allows students with Associate Degrees from select state community colleges to pursue their Bachelors degree in 8 subjects. 94% of the faculty hold doctoral degrees and the majority are full-time professors; the ratio of cadets to faculty is 12:1 and the average class size is 20. [10]

While all programs make use of the Citadel campus and professors, only cadets live on campus.[11][12] The veterans program, reinstated in the fall of 2007, allows veterans to attend classes with cadets and complete their degrees if certain criteria are met.[13] Enlisted members from the Marine Corps and Navy also attend cadet classes as part of a program to commission highly qualified NCOs.[14]

History[edit]

The Citadel presidents
Captain William F. Graham, USA1843–1844
Major Richard W. Colcock, USA1844–1852
Major Francis W. Capers, CSA1852–1859
Major Peter F. Stevens, SCM1859–1861
Major James B. White, SCM1861–1865
Colonel John P. Thomas, CSA1882–1885
BrigGen George D. Johnston, CSA1885–1890
Colonel Asbury Coward, CSA1890–1908
Colonel Oliver J. Bond, SCM1908–1931
General Charles P. Summerall, USA1931–1953
Colonel Louis S. LeTellier, SCM1953–1954 (Interim)
General Mark W. Clark, USA1954–1965
General Hugh P. Harris, USA1965–1970
MajGen James A. Duckett, SCM '321970–1974
LtGen George M. Seignious, USA '421974–1979
MajGen Wallace Anderson, SCM1979 (Interim)
VADM James B. Stockdale, USN1979–1980
MajGen James Grimsley, Jr., USA '421980–1989
LtGen Cladius E. Watts, USAF '581989–1996
BrigGen Roger C. Poole, USAR '591996–1997 (Interim)
MajGen John S. Grinalds, USMC1997–2005
BrigGen Roger C. Poole, USAR '592005–2006 (Interim)
LtGen John W. Rosa, Jr., USAF '732006–present

Main article: History of The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina

The Citadel traces its origins to a series of arsenals constructed by the state of South Carolina in the 1820s; founded by an act of the state legislature in 1842 as the South Carolina Military Academy it originally consisted of the Citadel Academy in Charleston and the Arsenal Academy in Columbia. The Arsenal was burned by General Sherman's forces during the American Civil War and never reopened. The Citadel Academy was occupied by Union troops in 1865 and reopened as an educational institution in 1882. During the Civil War, the SCMA Corps of Cadets was organized into a military unit known as the Battalion of State Cadets which took part in nine engagements. In January 1861, Citadel Academy cadets manning a battery on Morris Island fired the first shots of the conflict when they shelled the Union steamship Star of the West which was attempting to resupply Fort Sumter. In December 1864, the cadet battalion made up more than a third of a Confederate force that defended a strategic rail line during the Battle of Tulifinny.

In 1922, the school moved from its original location on Marion Square in downtown Charleston to a new campus on the banks of the Ashley River on the northwest side of the city. The Citadel has grown steadily from an enrollment of 460 to its present 3,500. During World War II, The Citadel had the highest percentage of any American college student body serving in the military and all but 46 of its living graduates were members of the armed forces.[15] Alumni served as members of the Flying Tigers and Doolittle Raiders; 280 died in the service of their country. The first black cadet enrolled in 1966 and women were admitted in 1996. A graduate program was started in 1968. A major capital improvement campaign started in 1989 saw the replacement or extensive renovation of a majority of the buildings on campus, academic offerings have been continuously expanded to offer in demand courses and degrees in fields such as Mechanical Engineering, Computer Science, Cybersecurity, Criminal Justice and Nursing.[16] Citadel cadets and alumni have served in every United States military action from the Mexican War to the current Global War on Terrorism.[17][18]

Academics[edit]

Rankings[edit]

In 2017 for the seventh consecutive year, U.S. News & World Report ranked The Citadel highest among Master's degree offering public institutions in the "Regional Universities – South" category and fourth out of all 94 universities (public and private) in the same category; the school was also ranked the #1 Best Value and #2 Best College for Veterans in the South in that category.[19] defined as those institutions offering "a full range of undergrad programs and some master's programs". The undergraduate engineering program was ranked #19 nationally among those offering up to a master's degree.
Money Magazines latest college ratings have The Citadel ranked 86th out of all U.S. colleges for affordability, scholarship availability, average student debt, graduation rate and average graduate earnings[20]
In 2016 The Economist Magazine ranked The Citadel 94th out of nearly 1,300 U.S. colleges for average earnings of graduates[21]
The Citadel is designated a National Center for Academic Excellence in Cyberdefense by the National Security Agency[22]
The Citadel currently ranks 25th out of all US public colleges in 4 year graduation rate.[23]; as of 2015, the four-year graduation rate is 63% compared to a national average of 30%;[24] the six-year rate is 72%.[25]

Schools[edit]

During the 2002–03 academic year, The Citadel reorganized its existing Departments into five schools, each headed by a Dean. The schools comprise Business; Education; Engineering; Humanities and Social Sciences; and Science and Mathematics.[26]

Business[edit]

The Baker School of Business offers undergraduate and graduate degrees in Business Administration. Accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business since 1996, more cadets major in Business Administration than any other major. The MBA program is also the largest of The Citadel's graduate programs. The school will relocate to a new building to be constructed on campus beginning in 2017. The building will be named for Rick and Mary Lee Bastin.[27] On February 22, 2017, The Citadel announced that Tommy Baker '72, who attended as a veteran student after serving in the Marine Corps,[28] and his wife had made a gift to endow business programs, and that the school would be named in their honor.[29]

Education[edit]

The Zucker Family School of Education houses undergraduate and graduate education programs in several specialties. On November 11, 2014, The Citadel named its School of Education for the Zucker Family, after Anita Zucker made a $4 million donation to the school for its education programs.[30] The school is currently located in Capers Hall, but will relocate to Bond Hall upon the completion of Bastin Hall.[27]

Engineering[edit]

The School of Engineering, which claims to be the fifth oldest such program in the nation, has long offered undergraduate degrees in Civil and Electrical Engineering. In 2014, the school added a Bachelor of Science in mechanical engineering program and added 13 additional degree and certificate programs in 2015, including master's degrees in Civil, Electrical, and Mechanical Engineering; beginning in the fall of 2018 a new major in Construction Engineering will be offered[31]. The school is located in Letellier Hall (Civil and Mechanical Engineering) and Grimsley Hall (Electrical Engineering).[32][33]U.S. News & World Report ranked The Citadel's School of Engineering 13th among all undergraduate engineering programs without doctoral degrees in the United States in 2016, the sixth straight year that the school has been in the Top 25.[34][35]

Humanities and Social Sciences[edit]

The School of Humanities and Social Sciences consists of seven departments: Criminal Justice, Intelligence and Security Studies, English, History, Modern Languages, Political Science, and Psychology. The school offers seven majors (with multiple concentrations) and 19 minors, and awards more than 50% of the credit hours earned at The Citadel. For graduate work, the school offers five degree programs and three certificates, including cyber security and intelligence analysis. These programs resulted in the school being named a National Center of Academic Excellence in Cyber Defense by the National Security Agency.[36] The school is located in Capers Hall, which will soon be rebuilt and modernized.[27]

Science and Mathematics[edit]

The School of Science and Mathematics is composed of the Departments of Biology, Chemistry, Health, Exercise, and Sport Science, Mathematics and Computer Science, Physics and Nursing. The school, along with the Zucker Family School of Education and the School of Engineering, sponsor the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) Center of Excellence, which hosts a variety of events throughout the year, including the annual Storm The Citadel week featuring a trebuchet competition.[37]

Academic programs[edit]

In addition to the Corps of Cadets residential day military program, The Citadel offers several degree options to non-cadets, including but not limited to targeting active duty military, veterans, and civilians in both classroom and distance-learning online settings.[38]

Corps of Cadets[edit]

The South Carolina Corps of Cadets is a residential, full-time program in a military environment. Focusing on educating the "whole person," membership in the Corps of Cadets is for students who want a military environment while pursuing a full-time undergraduate degrees.[7]

Graduate College[edit]

The Citadel offers evening and online programs under the banner of The Citadel Graduate College (CGC), serving the Lowcountry by offering regionally and professionally accredited bachelor's, master's and specialist degrees as well as certificate programs scheduled around the student's profession, family and lifestyle. CGC offers 19 graduate programs with concentrations in education, psychology, computer science, engineering and business.[note 1] The Masters of Business Administration program is nationally accredited, CGC also offers undergraduate evening and online programs in business and engineering. Some programs are offered through the Lowcountry Graduate Center consortium in North Charleston, South Carolina.

Evening Undergraduate Studies[edit]

8 undergraduate degrees are offered to non-cadet students, and the undergraduate programs offered through CGC are housed within the Evening Undergraduate Studies program. The 2+2 program allows students with associate degrees from a South Carolina technical college to complete their undergraduate work in seven majors, including business, engineering (civil, electrical, or mechanical), criminal justice, political science, and social studies education.[39]

Enlisted Commissioning Programs[edit]

The Citadel is home to Enlisted Commissioning Programs for the Navy and Marine Corps.[40] The first Marine Enlisted Commissioning Education Program (MECEP) in the nation was established at The Citadel in 1973. Navy enlisted members attend as part of the Seaman to Admiral (STA-21) Program. Participants in these programs attend day classes with cadets in their service uniform, including ROTC, but are not required to live on campus.[41]

Leadership training[edit]

ROTC[edit]

All cadets are required to undergo four years of ROTC training in one of the four branches of the armed services that offer ROTC programs (the Coast Guard does not have such a program), but they are not required to enter military service after graduation unless on ROTC scholarship or contract. Approximately 30% of Citadel Cadets are commissioned upon graduation.[10]

U.S. Coast Guard Auxiliary University Program[edit]

In addition to their required ROTC course, cadets interested in pursuing a career with the United States Coast Guard can join The Citadel's Coast Guard Auxiliary Unit Program (AUP). Originally established as The Citadel Coast Guard Society in 2007 and officially designated as Coast Guard Auxiliary Flotilla 12-8a Citadel Detachment in 2008, The Citadel's Auxiliary Unit Program is one of the first Coast Guard Auxiliary University Programs in the nation. The purpose of the unit is to orient and educate cadets on service options within the United States Coast Guard, to include Direct Commissions, Officer Candidate School (OCS), active duty and reserve enlistments, and continued service with the auxiliary.[42][43]

Krause Center for Leadership and Ethics[edit]

Established with a gift from L. William Krause '64, the Krause Center for Leadership and Ethics offers symposiums, classes and training seminars to help instill the principles of leadership, ethics, morals and service. A minor in leadership studies is also sponsored through this program. Training is conducted each year for freshmen and sophomores on honor and ethics. Leadership classes are also given to cadets in the senior chain of command. The institute also sponsors programs that offer cadets an opportunity to perform community service and instill a sense of commitment to one's fellow man.[44]

Cadet Officer Leadership School[edit]

Selected members of Air Force JROTC units from the Southeastern United States cadets are eligible to spend a week at The Citadel for officer training for their home JROTC units. A routine day attending Cadet Officer Leadership School (COLS) begins with waking up to Reveille for morning PT, the remainder of the day is uniform wear and inspection, two classes and constant regulation drill. On the day of graduation from the school, cadets participate in a "pass in review" ceremony where awards and decorations are given to certain cadets who have gone above the normal standards. A PT ribbon and a Leadership School ribbon are given to all cadets who graduate from COLS back at their home unit.[citation needed]

Cadet life[edit]

Undergraduate students desiring to join the South Carolina Corps of Cadets must meet physical fitness and SAT/ACT testing standards for acceptance. On occasion, waivers to height/weight standards can be granted upon successful completion of the physical training test. On most days, cadets have both morning and afternoon physical (fitness) training, called "PT", military instruction on leadership, weapons, drill, and discipline, in addition to their regular college classes. Most weekdays start with a formal muster and inspection of all personnel and their rooms. Cadets then march to structured military meals. After a day spent in classes, sports and other activities, the day usually ends with an evening muster formation and mandatory evening study period during which there is enforced quiet time and all cadets are required to be in the barracks, library or academic buildings. Cadets are restricted to campus during the week, but are allowed general leave on weekends and have limited but gradually escalating privileges for weekend and overnight passes.

Because The Citadel corps of cadets program emphasizes corps unity and discipline, cadets may not be married and must live on campus in the barracks with their assigned company for four years. The Citadel emphasizes a strict disciplinary and physical fitness indoctrination for fourth-class cadets, who are called knobs because of the shaved heads of the males,[45]:93 which they must maintain until the Spring when they are then recognized as upperclassmen.

Cadets who accumulate too many demerits or breach regulations can be punished by serving confinements or tours. A tour is one hour spent marching in the barracks with a rifle at shoulder arms and is normally performed when a cadet would otherwise be permitted to leave campus. A confinement is one hour spent in a cadet's room when they would normally be permitted to leave campus.

First class cadets, veteran students, and active duty military students receive their class rings at a special ring presentation ceremony which was previously held in the college's chapel, but which now takes place in the school's field house.[citation needed] Non Cadet civilian students may also purchase a Citadel ring. The civilian rings have a different design and do not say "Military College of South Carolina."[45]:188–20[46] Both versions of The Citadel ring are 10 karat gold with no gem stone; the design does not change with each class with the exception of the class year. One of the core values of The Citadel is an Honor Code that mandates that all students, both cadets and civilians, not lie, cheat, steal or tolerate those who do. A cadet-run Honor Court investigates all alleged violations and conducts trials. The penalty may result in expulsion, although recommendations for leniency may be forwarded to the President of the College for consideration.

Included in The Citadel Graduate College are active duty Marine Corps and Navy enlisted personnel attending The Citadel under the Seaman To Admiral program (STA-21) and the Marine Enlisted Commissioning Education Program (MECEP), which originated at The Citadel in 1973.[47]

The Regimental Band and Pipes[edit]

Main article: The Regimental Band and Pipes

Established in 1909, the Regimental Band is one of the twenty-one companies that comprise the current Corps and is a prominent feature at every formal parade. Prospective members must pass an audition. None of the band's members are music majors, as The Citadel does not offer such a major, yet the band and pipes enjoy an international reputation. The Band and Pipes made their inaugural appearance at the Edinburgh Military Tattoo in 1991 and were the only group from the United States to perform that year. Selected again by the Director of the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo in Scotland to represent the United States at the 2010 Silver Jubilee Tattoo, The Citadel Regimental Band and Pipes performed their own seven-minute segment of the Jubilee program in August, 2010 as well as performing as part of the massed pipes and massed bands. Selected for a third time to represent the United States at the 2015 Tattoo, the Regimental Band performed the opening fanfare for the Tattoo's theme "East meets West" as well as the massed bands finale. Combined with the Citadel pipe band, their own seven-minute segment of the show featured musical numbers reflecting a wide variety of uniquely American music.[48]

The Citadel Pipe Band, established by General Mark W. Clark in 1955, is one of the few college bagpipe bands in the country[49] and it performs at the weekly parade at The Citadel, as well as at numerous other public events. The Citadel Regimental Band participated in the Presidential Inaugural parade in 1953, and again combined with the pipe band in the inaugural parades of 1961, 1985 and 2017.

In the summer of 2013 the Band and Pipes performed as the United States representative at the week-long Royal Nova Scotia International Tattoo in Halifax, Canada.[50][51]

Summerall Guards[edit]

Main article: The Summerall Guards

The Summerall Guards is a silent drill team consisting of 61 cadets chosen each spring from the junior class. Founded in 1932, the team performs a routine called The Citadel Series that has changed very little from its inception and has never been written down. The Guards have performed at numerous high-profile events around the United States, including four presidential inaugurations, the National Cherry Blossom Festival, Mardi Gras in New Orleans and at several NFL games.[52]

Honors Program[edit]

An Honors Program is available for cadets with exceptional academic standing and includes a core curriculum of honors courses conducted by the most highly rated faculty members, small seminars and classes are conducted in a discussion type forum that encourages intellectual advancement. The program also assists the most highly qualified cadets in applying for scholarships, grants and merit based internships; since 1992 The Citadel has produced 14 Fulbright Scholars and three Truman Scholars.[53]

Each year cadets participate in study abroad programs in numerous foreign countries, an internship program in Washington, D.C. allows cadets an opportunity to work at various government agencies and in the offices of congressmen and senators. Summer internship programs are available in many cities with major United States corporations.[54]

Athletics[edit]

Main article: The Citadel Bulldogs

The Citadel competes in NCAA Division I and has been a member of the Southern Conference since 1936; the school mascot is the Bulldog. Men's intercollegiate sports are football, basketball, baseball, wrestling, cross country, indoor and outdoor track, rifle, tennis and golf; women's sports are volleyball, soccer, cross country, indoor and outdoor track, rifle and golf. Numerous club sports include lacrosse, rugby, pistol, sailing, crew, ice hockey and triathlon. Both civilian students and cadet students are eligible to compete on all Citadel athletic teams.

The Citadel Bulldogs baseball team has won 20 Southern Conference regular season and tournament championships, most recently in 2010; 43 players have been selected in the MLB draft[55] The 1990 team won the Atlantic Regional, earning the school its first trip to the College World Series (CWS) and finishing the season ranked sixth in the final Collegiate Baseball poll with a record of 46–14; they also became the first military school to play in the CWS. Numerous alumni have played in the major leagues in recent years, recently retired Head Coach Fred Jordan '79 is the school and conferences winningest with 831 victories.[56]

The football team has won four Southern Conference Championships and appeared in the Football Championship Subdivision playoffs five times; the 1960 team defeated Tennessee Tech 27–0 in the Tangerine Bowl.[57] The 1992 squad went 11–2 and finished the regular season ranked #1 in the I-AA poll.[58] The 2015 team recorded 9 wins including a victory over South Carolina and 4 players were named to All-America teams. The 2016 squad had a 10-game win streak and won the outright Conference Championship. As of 2010 the football program had a graduation success rate of 90% compared to the Division I average of 65% [59] Several alumni have played in the professional ranks including current wide receiver Andre Roberts of the Atlanta Falcons; cornerback Cortez Allen recently played 5 seasons with the Pittsburgh Steelers. Fullback Nehemiah Broughton '05 played with the Washington Redskins, Arizona Cardinals and New York Giants; fullback Travis Jervey '95 was an All-Pro and member of the 1996 Super Bowl Champion Green Bay Packers, kicker Greg Davis '87 had a 12-year career with several teams including Arizona and the Atlanta Falcons. ESPN color commentator Paul Maguire '60 was a tight end and punter for three AFL champions with the Buffalo Bills and former St. Louis/Phoenix Cardinals running back Lyvonia "Stump" Mitchell '81 has been a head coach at two Division I colleges and served as an NFL assistant for Seattle, Washington, Arizona and the New York Jets.

The wrestling team has sent 68 members to the NCAA Tournament and produced 4 All-Americans, with 3 in the past 2 seasons; Rob Hjerling was named the 2014 Southern Conference Coach of the Year.

Completed in 2005, the Inouye Marksmanship Center is utilized by cadets, law enforcement and the South Carolina National Guard. The rifle team has won four national championships;[60] Cadet Stephen Bowden was the 2013 National Individual Pistol Champion[61]

In 2010 The Citadel had a graduation success rate for athletes of 87%; this compares to the national Division I average of 70%.[citation needed]

Campus[edit]

Main article: Campus of The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina

The Citadel sits on a 300-acre (120 ha) tract of land on the Ashley River just to the northwest of downtown Charleston. There are 27 buildings grouped around a 10-acre (4.0 ha) grass parade ground. The buildings around the parade ground include ten classroom buildings, an administration building, five barracks, mess hall, a student activities building, chapel, library, a yacht club, a marksmanship center, a field house, faculty housing area and various support facilities including a laundry, cadet store, tailor shop and power plant. The campus is bounded on the west by the Ashley River, to the north by the Wagener Terrace neighborhood, to the east by Hampton Park and the Hampton Park Terrace neighborhood, and to the South by the Westside Neighborhood.

Just off the main campus are the football stadium, baseball stadium, and alumni center. Additionally, there is a large beach house facility located near the north end of the Isle of Palms.[62]

Summerall Chapel[edit]

The Summerall Chapel, designed by C.R. MacDonald, was started in September 7, 1936 and dedicated on Palm Sunday, April 10, 1938. The first services, however, were held in the chapel on September 19, 1937.[63] The chapel was named in honor of Citadel president Gen. Charles Pelot Summerall.[64] Inside, there is a set of thirty stained glass windows designed by H.G. Wilbert depicting the life of Jesus Christ which were executed by the Pittsburgh Stained Glass Studios in the 13th century Gothic style.[65] A $1 million repair program was developed for the chapel in 1985.[66]

The Daniel Library[edit]

Originally named "The Memorial Library and Museum" and opened in 1960, it was renamed in 1972, "The Daniel Library" in honor of Charles E. Daniel, '18 and Robert Hugh Daniel, '29, both lifelong benefactors of the college. Major renovations were completed in the fall of 2010. It houses over 200,000 volumes of material as well as electronic access to thousands of journals. The third floor of the building houses the campus archives and museum.[67][68]

The Prioleau Room on the first floor houses special collections and is considered by many as one of the best places on campus to study with its dark wood paneling and fireplace. The Daniel Library website has information for locating items in the catalog,[69] the Lowcountry Digital Library,[70] and The Citadel's own Digital Collections.[71]

Campus Landmarks[edit]

Howie Bell Tower and Carillon[edit]

Standing next to Summerall Chapel and built in 1954, this structure honors one of the schools most revered alumni, US Army Major Thomas D. Howie, Class of 1929, who served as Commander of 3rd Battalion, 116th Infantry Regiment, 29th Infantry Division in the Normandy Campaign during World War II and was immortalized as "The Major of St Lo". Killed in action during the liberation of St. Lo, France, he was so respected that his flag draped body was carried on the hood of a jeep at the head of the column of troops so he could be accorded the honor of being the first American to enter the city. A photo of his body placed in the rubble of the St. Croix Cathedral came to symbolize the courage and sacrifice of US forces in the European Theater. Containing 59 bronze bells cast at the Royal Bergen Foundry in the Netherlands, the tower carillon is one of the largest in the Western Hemisphere.[72]

Seraph Monument[edit]

Located next to Mark Clark Hall at the northeast corner of Summerall Field, this uniquely shaped monument contains artifacts from the British submarine HMS Seraph which carried then Major General Mark Clark to a secret landing in Algeria prior to the Allied landings in the North African Campaign of World War II in order to negotiate a surrender of the Vichy French forces; the vessel was also involved in Operation Mincemeat, a clandestine operation which succeeded in convincing the Germans that the allies intended to invade Sardinia, not Sicily. The memorial honors Anglo-American friendship and cooperation during World War II and is the only shore location in the United States authorized to fly the Royal Navy Ensign.[73][74][75]

General Mark Clark Gravesite[edit]

Lying between Mark Clark Hall and Summerall Chapel is the burial plot of US Army General Mark Wayne Clark who served as Citadel President from 1954 to 1965 and President Emeritus until his death in 1984. The youngest Lieutenant General in the United States Army during World War II (age 46), Clark served as General Dwight Eisenhower's deputy during the "Operation Torch" landings in North Africa, then commanded the 5th Army in the Italian campaign liberating Rome in June, 1944. He later served as Commanding General of the 15th Army Group and in 1952 was appointed by President Truman as Supreme Commander of UN forces in Korea.[76]

The Citadel Ring Statue[edit]

Located at the southeast corner of the parade ground near Lesesne Gate, the main entrance to campus, is a giant replica of The Citadel ring, recognized as the most important and treasured symbol of a graduate. It was a gift to The Citadel Alumni Association from Palmetto Balfour, the current supplier of the official Citadel class rings.[77]

Monuments to the armed forces[edit]

On the parade ground are monuments dedicated to each of the military services and honoring the contributions of Citadel alumni to the military. They include a Marine landing craft (LVT-H-6); an Army Sherman Tank (M4A3) and an Army Missile (Corporal); an Air Force fighter jet (F-4C Phantom II); an AH-1 "Cobra" helicopter gunship and an anchor from the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Coral Sea. A United States Coast Guard Bell serves as a monument to Citadel graduates who have lost their lives upon the sea.[73]

Alumni[edit]

Main article: List of alumni of The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina

The Citadel has produced a wealth of distinguished alumni in many different career fields; well known graduates include longtime U.S. Senator Ernest "Fritz" Hollings, best selling novelist Pat Conroy, football commentator Paul Maguire, Space Shuttle astronaut and International Space Station Commander Colonel Randy Bresnik, Atlanta Falcons wide receiver Andre Roberts and the current Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps General Glenn M. Walters. [78] Notable alumni include 6 governors, 3 U.S. senators, 12 congressmen, the presidents of 47 colleges and universities, the Director of the U.S. Olympic Committee and many professional athletes.[79]

Approximately 30% of cadet graduates are commissioned as officers into the military, another 10% go directly to graduate programs [80]; alumni currently serve in all five military services. Over the years, 291 Citadel alumni have reached the top ranks in the military by becoming flag officers (Generals, Admirals or Commodore), ten have served as a state Adjutant General.[81] Nine alumni have served as pilots with the two U.S. military flight demonstration units, the Thunderbirds and Blue Angels; graduates have served as commanders of both squadrons.[82][83] Alumni also serve in the military services of foreign countries including 5 four star generals from Thailand and the head of Jordan's Security Forces.[79]

Citadel alumni were killed in action during the Mexican–American War (6), Civil War (67), World War I (15), World War II (280), Korean War (32), Vietnam War (68), Lebanon (1), Grenada (1), the Gulf War (1), and the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan (18).[84]

Fictional depictions[edit]

In film[edit]

  • In the film For the Boys (1991), Bette Midler's son graduates as Regimental Commander of the Corps of Cadets.[85] His commencement speech is filmed in front of 2nd Battalion Barracks.[citation needed]
  • In the remake of the movie "The Manchurian Candidate" (2004) Major Ben Marco (Denzel Washington) is a 1984 Citadel graduate.
  • Several scenes of the movie Dear John (2010) were filmed at The Citadel.[86]

In literature[edit]

  • A thinly veiled depiction of The Citadel provides the background for Calder Willingham's novel End as a Man (1947) and the film adaptation, The Strange One (1957).[87]
  • Pat Conroy's 1980 novel The Lords of Discipline was based on Conroy's experience as a cadet at The Citadel during the 1960s and on his research of other military schools. The novel outraged many of his fellow graduates of The Citadel, who felt that the book was a thinly veiled portrayal of campus life that was highly unflattering. The rift was not healed until 2000, when Conroy was awarded an honorary degree and asked to deliver the commencement address the following year. That year Conroy spearheaded fundraising to renovate the banquet hall in The Citadel Alumni Association building. The Lords of Discipline was made into a movie of the same name starring David Keith and Robert Prosky in 1983. Conroy also wrote about his experiences at the Citadel in his memoir My Losing Season (2002).[88]

In music[edit]

In television[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^As of June 30, 2016. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2015 to FY 2016"(PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute. 2016. 
  2. ^"Financial Statements"(PDF). The Citadel. 2017. p. 3. Retrieved November 1, 2017. 
  3. ^"Brand Toolbox: Colors - The Citadel - Charleston, SC". Citadel.edu. Retrieved 2016-04-08. 
  4. ^Eric, Oman,. "Evening Undergraduate Studies 2+2 Programs - The Citadel - Charleston, SC". www.citadel.edu. Retrieved 13 June 2017. 
  5. ^Kara, Klein,. "List of Master's Degrees and Graduate Certificates - The Citadel - Charleston, SC". www.my.citadel.edu. Retrieved 13 June 2017. 
  6. ^"Student Enrollment Profile"(PDF). The Citadel. Fall 2015. Retrieved December 28, 2016. 
  7. ^ ab"General Information and Quick Facts about The Citadel - The Citadel - Charleston, SC". The Citadel. Retrieved 29 May 2015. 
  8. ^
Checkerboard Quadrangle of Padgett Thomas Barracks
Summerall Chapel faces the Parade Grounds.
  1. ^In 2007 The Citadel changed its graduate program's name from the College of Graduate and Professional Studies (CGPS) to The Citadel Graduate College (CGC).

Stand out from the crowd. Here's how to write a good personal statement that will get you noticed

So, you’re thinking about writing your personal statement. Good plan, let’s get started. Seriously - right now. Sorry to be blunt, but it’s truly never too early.

Your personal statement forms a core part of your university application, and the sooner you get going, the better you can make it.

"Hang on a minute," you say. "I've heard personal statements don’t matter that much. I've heard unis are more interested in grades and experience than the 4,000 characters I'm typing into my personal statement." Well, that can be true. Can be.

Personal statement deadlines

You'll need to make sure you've got your personal statement written well in advance of your application deadline. Below are the main university application deadline dates.


15 October
Deadline for applications to Oxford and Cambridge universities, along with most medicine, dentistry, and veterinary courses

15 January
Deadline for applications to the majority of undergraduate courses

24 March
Deadline for applications to some art and design courses

Trouble is, you can’t know for sure and personal statements can often end up being a bit of a tiebreaker.

Let's say there’s one space left on a course, and you're one of two applicants with matching grades and experience. All of a sudden, those personal statements are the only way for admissions staff to tell the difference between the two of you. If yours is rushed and full of spelling mistakes, what do you think of your chances?

Sure, your application might not reach that dealbreaker stage. But is it something you want to leave to chance?

Here we’ll take you through the process of planning, writing and checking a good personal statement, so you end up with something you can submit with confidence.

And to make sure the advice we're giving you is sound, we’ve spoken to admissions staff at more than 20 UK universities to get their view. Look out for video interviews and advice on applying for specific subjects throughout this piece or watch our personal statement playlist on YouTube.

What is a personal statement?

Let’s start with the basics. A personal statement is a central part of your UCAS application, where you explain why you’ve chosen a particular course and why you’ll be good at it.


Personal statements are especially important if you’re trying to get on a very competitive course, where you need to do anything you can to stand out.

There’s a limit on how much you can write: your personal statement can be up to 4,000 characters (including spaces) or 47 lines of 95 characters (including spaces); whichever is shorter.

1. Using your personal statement to explain what you want to do

The first thing you need to do is make a plan. Honestly - do this bit. Writing a personal statement off the top of your head is horribly difficult, and if you don’t have a plan it’s probably going to come out rubbish. Start with some notes, answering the following questions.

  • What do you want to study?
  • Why do you want to study it?
  • What is there about you that shows you’re suited to studying this subject at university? Think about your personality, as well as your experiences.
  • What are your other interests and skills?

These few points are going to form the spine of your personal statement, so write them in a way that makes sense to you. You might want to make a simple bulleted list or you might want to get all arty and create an elaborate mindmap. Whatever you choose, your aim is the same. You want to get it clear in your own head why a university should offer you a place on its course.

Getting those details down isn't always easy, and some people find it helpful to make notes over time. You might try carrying a notebook with you or set up a memo on your phone. Whenever you think of something useful for your personal statement, jot it down. Inspiration sometimes comes more easily when you’re thinking about something else entirely.

Expert advice on writing a law personal statement

"We like to know that students are going to be interested in studying law. It's useful to know what motivated the applicant to choose law rather than all the other subjects on offer.


"Interest may stem from A-level study, or from something in the news, or from personal interaction with the law. It doesn't matter as long as it is personal to the individual applicant.

"Law is also very much about communication and language so personal statements that indicate genuine interest in reading (beyond the set texts for A-level) or the meaning of words will suggest an aptitude for law."

Tim Hillier, head of De Montfort Law School

Read more expert advice on writing a personal statement for law

2. Show off your experience

Some things are worth adding to your personal statement; some things are not.

Firmly in the second camp are your qualifications. You don’t need to mention these - there’s a whole other section of your personal statement where you get to detail them very precisely. Don’t waste a single character going on about how great your GCSE grades are - it’s not what the admissions tutor wants to read.

What they do want to see is: what have you done? OK, so you’ve got some good grades, but so does everyone else. What have you done that’s different, that shows you off as someone who really loves the subject they are applying for?

Spend some time thinking about all the experience you have in that subject. If you’re lucky, this might be direct work experience. That’s going to be particularly appropriate if you’re applying for one of the more vocational subjects such as medicine or journalism.

But uni staff realise getting plum work experience placements is easier for some people than others - so cast your net wider when you’re thinking about what you’ve done. How about after-school clubs? Debating societies? Are you running a blog or vlog?

Remember, you’re looking for experience that shows why you want to study your chosen subject. You’re not just writing an essay about what you're doing in your A-level syllabus.

Expert advice on writing a psychology personal statement

"I’m not interested in applicants name-checking specific psychological studies. They don’t need to have studied the subject before, and they don’t need to have been interested from an early age.


"Instead, I want to know that applicants understand and appreciate modern psychology as a scientific endeavour, one which relies on formulating hypotheses and testing them with data to gain insights into brain and behaviour.

"There are a lot of public misconceptions about what the subject is about, most of which ignore this critical feature. The more misconceptions an applicant holds, the more likely that they’ll be disappointed with the course."

Dr Andrew Clark, psychology undergraduate admission tutor, Brunel University, London

Read more expert advice on writing a personal statement for psychology

3. Being bold in your personal statement

Don't be bashful about your achievements; that’s not going to help you get into uni. It's time to unleash your inner Muhammed Ali and get all “I am the greatest” with your writing.

Do keep it focused and accurate. Do keep your language professional. But don’t hide your qualities beneath a layer of false modesty. Your personal statement is a sell - you are selling yourself as brilliant student and you need to show the reader why that is true.

This doesn’t come naturally to everyone, and if you’re finding it difficult to write about how great you are it’s time to enlist some help. Round up a friend or two, a family member, a teacher, whoever and get them to write down your qualities. Getting someone else’s view here can help you get some perspective.

Don’t be shy. You are selling your skills, your experience and your enthusiasm - make sure they all leap off the screen with the way you have described them.

Expert advice on writing a personal statement for medical school

"A common mistake that applicants make when they write their personal statement is to describe a long list of different types of work and voluntary experience, without reflecting on these experiences and without demonstrating much insight into their chosen career.


"Much more important than what you have done is what you can demonstrate that you learned from the experience. What did you learn about being a doctor/working in modern healthcare? What did you learn about your own suitability to be a doctor? How did your experiences cement your desire to become a doctor?"

Dr Karen Grant, director of admissions for medicine and deputy director of medical studies, Lancaster Medical School

4. How to start your personal statement

In your first sentence, cut to the chase. Why do you want to do the course? Don’t waste any time rambling on about the daydreams you had when you were five.

Just be clear and concise - describe in one line why this course is so important to you. Then, in the rest of your intro, go into more detail in demonstrating your enthusiasm for the course and explaining how you decided this is what you want to do for the next three or more years.

However you choose to start your statement, just avoid the following hoary old chestnuts. These were the most-used opening lines in personal statements for 2016 entry - they are beyond cliche, so don’t even think about it.

1. From a young age I have (always) been [interested in/fascinated by]…

2. For as long as I can remember I have…
3. I am applying for this course because…
4. I have always been interested in…
5. Throughout my life I have always enjoyed…
6. Reflecting on my educational experiences…
7. Nursing is a very challenging and demanding [career/profession/course]…
8. Academically, I have always been…
9. I have always wanted to pursue a career in…
10. I have always been passionate about…
11. Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world…

Expert advice on writing a history personal statement

"One of the most important elements of a personal statement is for an applicant to show his/her engagement with the subject beyond the confines of their A-level studies. This might take the form of a book, a location or an activity that has been particularly influential in their choice course.


"Telling us why this particular work or event is personally significant is a good way for an applicant to demonstrate their passion for - and commitment to - studying history at degree level, showing us that they will be a bright and engaged student."

Professor Bob Moore from the University of Sheffield’s Department of History

Read more expert advice on writing a personal statement for history

5. What to write about

So you’ve got your intro done - time to nail the rest of it. You’ve got to be a little bit careful when following a personal statement template. It’s easy to fall into the trap of copying someone else’s style - in the process losing all of your own voice and personality from your writing.

But there is a rough order that you can follow, which should help keep you in your flow.

After your opening paragraph or two, get into any work experience (if you’ve got it). Talk about extra-curriculars : anything you've done which is relevant to the subject can go here. Touch on your career aspirations - where do you want this course to take you?

Next, show your enthusiasm for your current studies. Cite some specific examples of current work that you enjoyed. Show off your relevant skills and qualities by explaining how you’ve used these in the past. Make sure you’re giving real-world examples here - not just vague assertions like “I’m really organised and motivated.”

Follow this up with something about you as a person. Talk about non-academic stuff that you like to do, but link it in some way with the course, or with how it shows your maturity for dealing with uni life.

Round it all off by bringing your main points together, including a final emphasis of your commitment to studying this particular course.

Expert advice on writing a geography personal statement

"Aspiring geographers often like to tell us about their travels. Get the most out of your holiday stories by including some geographical analysis: did the city you visit conform to traditional ideas about urban layout, for example.


"You could also consider the geographical aspects of stories in the news. All universities want to recruit students who are aware of what’s going on around them. If you are able to add your own opinion on these topics it shows that you have the analytical skills needed."

Lorna Stevenson, undergraduate admissions specialist for geography, LSE

Read more expert advice on writing a personal statement for geography

6. How long should a personal statement be?

You've got to work to a very specific limit when writing your personal statement. In theory you could use up to 4,000 characters - but you’re probably more likely to be limited by the line count. That's because it's a good idea to put line breaks in between your paragraphs (to make it more readable) and you only get a maximum of 47 lines.

But for starters you should ignore these limits completely. At first, you just want to get down everything that you feel is important. You'll probably end up with something that is far too long, but that's fine. This is where you get to do some polishing and pruning.

Keep the focus of your piece on the course you’re applying for, why you want to do it and why you’re perfectly suited to it. Look through what you’ve written so far - have you got the balance right? Chop out anything that goes on a bit - you want each point to be snappy and succinct.

Expert advice on writing a computer science personal statement

"Generic statements such as ‘keeping up to date with technology’ tell us very little, but if you have experience of Scratch programming, have investigated a programming language such as C# or Java, or have built something using a Raspberry Pi, that’s relevant.


"Visiting a university computing department, attending a science fair, or being a member of a computing society would also show a personal interest in the subject."

Dr Neil A. Gordon, departmental selector, Department of Computer Science, The University of Hull

Read more expert advice on writing a personal statement for computer science

7. Keep it simple

Editing your statement isn’t just about hitting a character count - you need to also make sure your writing is doing its job: explaining why you want to do the course and why you’re right for it.