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Apex Return Current Page Reference In Essay

APEX welcomes letter papers with high scientific quality and strong impact to current applied physics research. The journal publishes papers that significantly contribute to advancements in the applications of physical principles as well as in the understanding of physics in view of particular applications in mind. It is very important to ensure that the content of your paper fits well with the scope and policy of the journal. Papers that do not meet these standards will be rejected. Before preparing your manuscript, you are advised to read this Submission Guideline as well as the descriptions in About APEX and Editorial Policy.

As a letter journal, APEX publishes original papers exhibiting timeliness and sufficiently strong impact in the relevant fields and society to merit priority handling in the review and publication processes. You are recommended to abide by this criterion of the journal in preparing your manuscript. To understand what the reviewer looks for in your paper, it may be useful to read the Reviewer Guideline for reference.

More details are available: Author’s Guide for Submission to APEX

ORIGINALITY

As a basic rule of scientific publication, a manuscript to be submitted to the journal should be original. A manuscript having essentially the same content as what was or will be published elsewhere will not be considered for publication in APEX. On submission of manuscripts, please pay careful attention to the following:

  • Manuscripts should not have been published elsewhere.
  • Duplicate submission is unethical. Do not submit manuscripts that have been accepted or are under active consideration for publication elsewhere.
  • The journal may accept a paper that has appeared in a similar form in publications not available to the general public, such as conference books for on-site use, internal reports, and abstracts for international conferences, but the author(s) must cite the previous publication in the reference section of the manuscript and also must provide at the time of manuscript submission a cover letter stating the previous publication with reprint(s) attached.

The authors are requested to read also the Ethical Policy to avoid ethical violation.

TYPES OF PAPERS

AEPX publishes various types of papers depending on the content. When submitting a manuscript, please follow the requirements of content, length limit, and style recommendation of the type of paper that you intend to contribute, as summarized below.

Letters:

  • The maximum length is four printed pages, including tables and figures (about 4120 words). In the final formatting process, however, an overflow of the reference list to a fifth page is permissible for submissions from January 1st 2018 (JST) onward.
  • An abstract of no more than 100 words should be provided.
  • A Letter should not be divided into sections.
  • Letters should cover all references that are appropriate and adequate for the work. A recommended number of references for a Letter is approximately 30 or more. (No upper limit is specified.)
  • Full color printing for figures incurs no extra charge.
  • Manuscripts should be written in clear and correct English. Manuscripts will be returned to the authors without review if the English is unacceptable.

APEX Review:

  • An APEX Review is an article which is concisely introduce emerging and fast-developing fields that will be of interest to the whole community.
  • APEX Reviews can be submitted by authors invited by APEX Editorial Board.
  • The manuscript should be written as concisely as possible, although no limitation on length is specified.

Comments and Replies:

  • Exchange of comments and replies on papers previously published in APEX is available.
  • Abstract is not necessary.
  • The maximum length for comments or replies is two printed pages. (about 2060 words).

Errata:

  • Errata announce the corrections made to published papers and paper retraction.
  • The length should be within one printed page.

SUBMISSION

Papers should be submitted via the web-based editorial system. The authors should prepare the following items before submission, and then follow the instructions on the Web submission page.

  • MS Word (*.doc or *.docx) or LaTeX file; a MS Word (*.doc or *.docx) which must include tables and figures, and a LaTeX source file together with figure files. Please refer to the “Instructions for Preparation of Manuscript” for the required format.
  • Agreement Form for Copyright Transfer and for Publication Charge Payment: This form, signed by the author, should be sent to the Editorial Office by fax at the time of paper submission. Papers without this agreement will not be published.
  • List of recommended reviewers: For rapid and fair reviewing, authors are strongly encouraged to suggest several experts whom they consider particularly suited to review their paper. This recommendation would be very helpful for the editor to speed-up the review process particularly when the work is in an interdisciplinary research area. The editor is, however, not constrained to select a reviewer from that list. In recommending reviewers, please avoid soliciting candidates from those people who have close relationship with the author(s): for instance, members affiliated with the same research group and/or unit with the authors; researchers who coauthored papers on relevant subjects; leaders, officers, managers and the likes who supervised the research project under which the work was done etc.
  • Reference materials, if any

SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

  • Supplementary data attachment will enhance a reader’s understanding of the article but is not essential to comprehension of the main results of the published article. Supplementary data attachment typically consist of multimedia files of video clips or animations and items including tables of raw or analyzed data, parameters in calculations, derivations of equations, computer codes, sample preparation, extra figures and so on.
  • Supplementary data must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. It cannot be altered or replaced after the article has been accepted for publication. It should not be used to avoid a length limit, and a short article accompanied by lengthy supplementary data is not appropriate. Supplementary data should not accompany Comments, Replies, or Errata.
  • The supplementary data is referred to in the main manuscript where necessary, for example as “(see supplementary data)”.
    • The file size of supplementary data should not exceed 3 MB, unless more is required to show the work appropriately. Use popular file format for a multimedia file so that it can easily be accessed by the reader (including the editors and the reviewers). The usage of the following file formats is recommended:

*.avi, *.flv, *.mov, *.mp3, *.mp4, *.mpeg, *.mpg, *.pdf, *.qt, *.rm, *.wav, *.wmv

  • The author should take full responsibility for both preparation and contents of supplementary data. All questions and comments on supplementary data should be addressed to the corresponding author of the article. Supplementary data is covered under the same copyright as the associated published article.
  • Supplementary data should be reviewed together with the manuscript since it will be attached to the article if accepted. Reference items are used only for reviewing process.

Editorial & news

APEX is a sister journal of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics (JJAP) and is published by IOP Publishing Ltd on behalf of the Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP).

This publication is partially supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Publication of Scientific Research Results from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

Introducing APEX Reviews
The APEX Editorial Board are proud to introduce a new type of article – the APEX Review. These invited articles will concisely introduce emerging and fast-developing fields that will be of interest to the whole community. For more details, please refer to this introductory Editorial.

Expanded scope for APEX and JJAP
The Editorial Boards of APEX and JJAP are proud to announce that the subject of Physics-based circuits and systems will now be included in the scope of the journals. We encourage submissions of research articles on this exciting area of research. Submissions of the above subject will be available on April 2, 2018. For more information, please see the journals' scope pages.

APEX celebrates 10th anniversary
We are proud to mark the 10th anniversary of APEX in 2018, with a special collection of ten APEX letters—one selected from each year of publication of the journal. The collection may be found here.

A change to page limits for Letters
The APEX Editorial Board is pleased to announce a change to the four page limit for APEX Letters submitted from January 1st, 2018 (JST) onward. One additional printed page will be allowed, should the reference list extend beyond the four page limit. No page charges will be applied for the extra fifth page. We hope that APEX authors will appreciate this opportunity to provide as full a reference list as they feel is necessary. Please see the General Information and Submission Guideline for submissions on January 1st 2018 onward for full details.

APEX Impact Factor increases
The 2016 Impact Factor for APEX has been announced as 2.667. Professor Yutaka Majima, Chief Executive Editor of APEX and JJAP, said "I am very pleased to see the new Impact Factors of APEX and JJAP show increases to 2.667 and 1.384, respectively. I would like to say thank you to the readers, authors, reviewers and editors for their continuous and valued contributions to APEX and JJAP. We look forward to continuing to serve the applied physics community around the world."

APEX and JJAP are now CHORUS compliant
From March 2017, qualifying articles published in APEX and JJAP will be included in the CHORUS service. CHORUS is used by six US Funding Agencies to deliver their public access mandates. Authors will need to record their funding agencies at the time of submission, and then after an embargo period of 12 months from publication, the accepted version of the authors manuscript will be made publically available. More information is available at https://www.chorusaccess.org/.

View all abstracts

The following article is Open access

Three-dimensional imaging of threading dislocations in GaN crystals using two-photon excitation photoluminescence

Tomoyuki Tanikawa et al 2018 Appl. Phys. Express11 031004

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The three-dimensional imaging of threading dislocations in GaN films was demonstrated using two-photon excitation photoluminescence. The threading dislocations were shown as dark lines. The spatial resolutions near the surface were about 0.32 and 3.2 µm for the in-plane and depth directions, respectively. The threading dislocations with a density less than 10 8 cm −2 were resolved, although the aberration induced by the refractive index mismatch was observed. The decrease in threading dislocation density was clearly observed by increasing the GaN film thickness. This can be considered a novel method for characterizing threading dislocations in GaN films without any destructive preparations.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.11.031004References

The following article is Open access

Thermal power generation during heat cycle near room temperature

Takayuki Shibata et al 2018 Appl. Phys. Express11 017101

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We demonstrate that a sodium-ion secondary battery (SIB)-type thermocell consisting of two types of Prussian blue analogue (PBA) with different electrochemical thermoelectric coefficients ( SEC ≡ ∂ V/∂ T; V and T are the redox potential and temperature, respectively) produces electrical energy during heat cycles. The device produces an electrical energy of 2.3 meV/PBA per heat cycle between 295 K (= TL) and 323 K (= TH). The ideal thermal efficiency (η = 1.0%), which is evaluated using the heat capacity ( C = 4.16 meV/K) of ideal Na 2Co[Fe(CN) 6], reaches 11% of the Carnot efficiency (η th = 8.7%). Our SIB-type thermocell is a promising thermoelectric device that harvests waste heat near room temperature.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.11.017101References

The following article is Open access

Possible electronic entropy-driven mechanism for non-thermal ablation of metals

Yuta Tanaka and Shinji Tsuneyuki 2018 Appl. Phys. Express11 046701

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The physical mechanism of metal ablation induced by femtosecond laser irradiation was investigated in this study. Calculations based on finite-temperature density functional theory indicate that condensed copper becomes unstable at high electron temperatures due to an electronic entropy effect. Based on these results, an electronic entropy-driven mechanism is proposed to explain the metal ablation. Furthermore, a mathematical model is developed to simulate the ablation depth, where the effect of the electronic entropy is included. This mathematical model can quantitatively describe the experimental data in the low-laser-fluence region, where the electronic entropy effect is determined to be especially important.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.11.046701References

Neuromorphic computing enabled by physics of electron spins: Prospects and perspectives

Abhronil Sengupta and Kaushik Roy 2018 Appl. Phys. Express11 030101

View abstractView articlePDF

“Spintronics” refers to the understanding of the physics of electron spin-related phenomena. While most of the significant advancements in this field has been driven primarily by memory, recent research has demonstrated that various facets of the underlying physics of spin transport and manipulation can directly mimic the functionalities of the computational primitives in neuromorphic computation, i.e., the neurons and synapses. Given the potential of these spintronic devices to implement bio-mimetic computations at very low terminal voltages, several spin-device structures have been proposed as the core building blocks of neuromorphic circuits and systems to implement brain-inspired computing. Such an approach is expected to play a key role in circumventing the problems of ever-increasing power dissipation and hardware requirements for implementing neuro-inspired algorithms in conventional digital CMOS technology. Perspectives on spin-enabled neuromorphic computing, its status, and challenges and future prospects are outlined in this review article.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.11.030101References

The following article is Open access

Polarity inversion of aluminum nitride by direct wafer bonding

Yusuke Hayashi et al 2018 Appl. Phys. Express11 031003

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A novel fabrication process based on direct bonding technologies is proposed and demonstrated to achieve polarity inversion in AlN. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy observation clearly showed an atomically flat bonding interface and an abrupt transition from Al polarity (+ c) to N polarity (− c) through a single monolayer. This ideal polarity inversion of III–nitride materials is expected to provide new insight into heteropolar device applications.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.11.031003References

The following article is Open access

True-blue laser diodes with tunnel junctions grown monolithically by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

Czeslaw Skierbiszewski et al 2018 Appl. Phys. Express11 034103

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We demonstrate true-blue 450 nm tunnel junction (TJ) laser diodes (LDs) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The absence of hydrogen during PAMBE growth allows us to achieve TJs with low resistance. We compare TJ LDs with LDs of standard construction with p-type metal contact. For both types of LD, the threshold current density is around 3 kA/cm 2 and the slope efficiency is 0.5 W/A. We do not observe any significant changes in optical losses and differential gain in TJ LDs compared with standard LDs. The differential resistivity of the TJs for current densities higher than 2 kA/cm 2 is below 10 −4 Ω·cm 2.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.11.034103References

Analogue spin–orbit torque device for artificial-neural-network-based associative memory operation

William A. Borders et al 2017 Appl. Phys. Express10 013007

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We demonstrate associative memory operations reminiscent of the brain using nonvolatile spintronics devices. Antiferromagnet–ferromagnet bilayer-based Hall devices, which show analogue-like spin–orbit torque switching under zero magnetic fields and behave as artificial synapses, are used. An artificial neural network is used to associate memorized patterns from their noisy versions. We develop a network consisting of a field-programmable gate array and 36 spin–orbit torque devices. An effect of learning on associative memory operations is successfully confirmed for several 3 × 3-block patterns. A discussion on the present approach for realizing spintronics-based artificial intelligence is given.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.10.013007Cited byReferences

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Efficiency enhancement using a Zn1−xGex-O thin film as an n-type window layer in Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells

Tadatsugu Minami et al 2016 Appl. Phys. Express9 052301

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Efficiency enhancement was achieved in Cu 2O-based heterojunction solar cells fabricated with a zinc–germanium-oxide (Zn 1−x Ge x -O) thin film as the n-type window layer and a p-type Na-doped Cu 2O (Cu 2O:Na) sheet prepared by thermally oxidizing Cu sheets. The Ge content ( x) dependence of the obtained photovoltaic properties of the heterojunction solar cells is mainly explained by the conduction band discontinuity that results from the electron affinity difference between Zn 1−x Ge x -O and Cu 2O:Na. The optimal value of x in Zn 1−x Ge x -O thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition was observed to be 0.62. An efficiency of 8.1% was obtained in a MgF 2/Al-doped ZnO/Zn 0.38Ge 0.62-O/Cu 2O:Na heterojunction solar cell.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.9.052301Cited byReferences

Comparative study of scintillation properties of Cs2HfCl6 and Cs2ZrCl6

Keiichiro Saeki et al 2016 Appl. Phys. Express9 042602

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The photoluminescence and scintillation properties of Cs 2HfCl 6 and Cs 2ZrCl 6 crystals were investigated. Two emission bands in the photoluminescence spectra were observed at 375 and 435 nm for the Cs 2HfCl 6 crystal and at 440 and 479 nm for the Cs 2ZrCl 6 crystal. Similar spectra were observed for radioluminescence. The decay time constants were found to be about 2.2 and 8.4 µs for Cs 2HfCl 6 and 1.5 and 7.5 µs for Cs 2ZrCl 6. The scintillation light yields were estimated to be 27,500 and 25,100 photons/MeV for Cs 2HfCl 6 and Cs 2ZrCl 6, respectively.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.9.042602Cited byReferences

Analogue spin–orbit torque device for artificial-neural-network-based associative memory operation

William A. Borders et al 2017 Appl. Phys. Express10 013007

View abstractView articlePDF

We demonstrate associative memory operations reminiscent of the brain using nonvolatile spintronics devices. Antiferromagnet–ferromagnet bilayer-based Hall devices, which show analogue-like spin–orbit torque switching under zero magnetic fields and behave as artificial synapses, are used. An artificial neural network is used to associate memorized patterns from their noisy versions. We develop a network consisting of a field-programmable gate array and 36 spin–orbit torque devices. An effect of learning on associative memory operations is successfully confirmed for several 3 × 3-block patterns. A discussion on the present approach for realizing spintronics-based artificial intelligence is given.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.10.013007Cited byReferences

Ge doping of β-Ga2O3 films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

Elaheh Ahmadi et al 2017 Appl. Phys. Express10 041102

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The Ge doping of β-Ga 2O 3(010) films was investigated using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy as the growth method. The dependences of the amount of Ge incorporated on the substrate temperature, Ge-cell temperature, and growth regime were studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The electron concentration and mobility were investigated using Van der Pauw Hall patterns. Hall measurement confirmed that Ge acts as an n-dopant in β-Ga 2O 3(010) films. These results were compared with similar films doped by Sn. The Hall data showed an improved electron mobility for the same electron concentration when Ge is used instead of Sn as the dopant.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.10.041102Cited byReferences

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View all abstracts

More Review articles

Neuromorphic computing enabled by physics of electron spins: Prospects and perspectives

Abhronil Sengupta and Kaushik Roy 2018 Appl. Phys. Express11 030101

View abstractView articlePDF

“Spintronics” refers to the understanding of the physics of electron spin-related phenomena. While most of the significant advancements in this field has been driven primarily by memory, recent research has demonstrated that various facets of the underlying physics of spin transport and manipulation can directly mimic the functionalities of the computational primitives in neuromorphic computation, i.e., the neurons and synapses. Given the potential of these spintronic devices to implement bio-mimetic computations at very low terminal voltages, several spin-device structures have been proposed as the core building blocks of neuromorphic circuits and systems to implement brain-inspired computing. Such an approach is expected to play a key role in circumventing the problems of ever-increasing power dissipation and hardware requirements for implementing neuro-inspired algorithms in conventional digital CMOS technology. Perspectives on spin-enabled neuromorphic computing, its status, and challenges and future prospects are outlined in this review article.

https://doi.org/10.7567/APEX.11.030101References