Evolutionary Explanation of Gender Development Essay
937 WordsMar 27th, 20134 Pages
Outline and evaluate the evolutionary explanation of gender development.
Gender refers to the concepts o masculine and feminine whereas sex is the biological fact of being a male or female. According to the evolutionary approach, gender differences are neither deliberate nor conscious; they exist because they enhanced or helped men and women perform particular types of roles in the past. Therefore, the role differences we observe are more a product of our biological inheritance than acquired through socialisation.
Part of the evolutionary explanation is Trivers’ parental investment theory which argues that the origin of behavioural differences between men and women lies in the different ways of achieving reproductive success. Trivers…show more content…
Although some evidence is indisputable, such as women becoming pregnant, evolutionary psychologists need to update their theories to align with recent findings.
Baron and Cohen (2002) suggested, in their E-S theory, that male hunters gained an evolutionary advantage systematising over women who were much more empathetic. With their theory they suggested that during stress responses, men tend to be adapted for flight or fight, whereas females are not. Shields (1975) suggested that men and women evolved to have roles that complemented each other, in order for both genders to survive. This is supported by Ennis et al 2001) who found that men show a better ‘fight or flight’ response, as during exams men’s cortisol levels are higher than women’s during the same time period. However, evolutionary explanations may partially explain why gender roles have developed but the fact that gender roles can differ globally would imply social factors are also involved, so the evolutionary explanations cannot fully explain gender roles.
Another evolutionary explanation of gender development is mate choice, which suggests that gender role behaviours are related to reproductive strategies. It is thought that men will look for women who are young whereas women are usually more interested in the resources of a mate. This can be explained from an evolutionary perspective as mating with a physically attractive woman
Клушар вспомнил, что ее звали Капля Росы. Беккер скорчил гримасу: что это за имя. Скорее кличка коровы, чем имя красавицы. Разве так могут назвать католичку.